Internet of Things, IoT, technologies and standards of the Internet of things
The term “Internet of things” (IoT) was proposed in 1999 by Kevin Ashton, one of the three founders of the Center for automatic identification at the University of Massachusetts (Auto-ID Center). There are several definitions of this term, and each of them accurate enough. We will use the definition proposed by Gartner (the one that coined the term ERP):
“The IOT is the network of physical objects that have embedded technology to interact with the external environment, transmit information about their condition and to receive data from the outside.”
Part of the Internet of things is the Industrial (or Industrial) Internet of things (Industrial Internet of Things IIoT).
And have a new term: “Internet of everything” (Internet of Everything, IoE), which will replace the Internet of things in the near future.
In 1990, John Romka, one of the creators of TCP/IP, connect your toaster to the Internet and forced it to turn on and off remotely. This device became the world’s first “Internet thing”. In the period from 2008 to 2009, according to analysts Cisco, the number of devices connected to the world wide web has exceeded the population of the Earth.
The device of the Internet of things
The modern Internet consists of thousands of corporate, academic, governmental and home computer networks. Integration of networks of different architectures and topologies is carried out using IP Protocol. Every member of the Network (or group of participants) is assigned an IP address, permanent or temporary (dynamic).
Likewise, the Internet of things today consists of many weakly interconnected networks, each of which solves the problem. For example, in an office building can be deployed from multiple networks: to control the air conditioning, heating, lighting, security, etc. These networks can operate on different standards and combining them into a single network represents a non-trivial task. In addition, the current (fourth) version of the IP Protocol (IPv4) allows to use only 4.22 million addresses, out of which arose the problem of their exhaustion. And although not every device connected to the Network need a unique IP address (but still need a unique identifier), in connection with the rapid growth of the Internet of things the problem of lack of addresses can become a limiting factor. Fundamentally solve its sixth version of the Protocol, IPv6, which will allow every inhabitant of the Earth more than 300 million IP addresses.
It is expected that by 2020 the world will be from 30 to 50 billion networked things, and addressing capability of IPv6 will allow virtually no limits to identify it on the Network any thing.1
The technology of the Internet of things
At the core of the Internet of things is based on the following technologies.
Means of identification
Each object of the physical world involved in the Internet of things, even if not connected to a Network, still needs to have a unique ID. For automatic identification of objects can be used by different existing systems: radio frequency, using which to each object is attached RF tag, optical (barcodes, Data Matrix, QR codes), IR markers, etc in ensuring the uniqueness of identifiers of different types will have to work on standardization.
The task of measurement is to provide the transform information about the environment data, suitable for transmission processing. It can be as individual sensors of temperature and light, etc., as well as complex measuring systems. To achieve autonomy means of measurement, it is desirable to provide power supply of sensors at the expense of alternative energy (solar panels, etc.) to avoid wasting time and money on charging the battery or changing batteries.
The data transfer medium
For data transfer you can use any of the existing technologies. In the case of wireless networks focused on improving the reliability of data transmission. When using wired networks actively use the technology of data transmission via power lines, as many “things” (such as vending machines, ATMs, etc.) connected to the grid.
Thirty or more billions of devices forecast to be connected in 2020 to the Internet, will generate 44 billion terabytes of data. That’s about seven times the number of digitized information around the world as of 2010-ies.2 Therefore, Microsoft believe that the main part of the Internet of things is not the sensors and means of data transmission, and cloud-based system that provides high throughput and is able to react quickly to certain situations (for example, to be able sensors to find out what’s already in the house five minutes left, and the front door was left open). To help cope with the huge flows of information is also vague calculations that will not compete with the cloud, and effectively Supplement them.
Is the device able to convert digital electrical signals from the information networks into action. For example, in order via smartphone you can turn on the heating system in the house, she needs to have the appropriate device. Actuators are often structurally combined with the sensors.
The bright prospects of the Internet of things
It is expected that by 2020 the Internet of things will be applied in a variety of industries. First of all, this industry (see Industrial Internet of things), transportation (220 million connected cars), smart home, utilities (billion sensors, a substantial decrease in losses of energy), health care (646 million devices that collect data about people’s health), agrarian sector (75 million sensors to monitor the condition of the soil). In addition, the Internet of things will be used in trade, logistics, catering, hospitality, banking, construction and the armed forces (126 thousand military drones and robots).3
The standards for the application of Internet of things
As the Internet of things — a young and potentially very large market, many large companies are rushing to take their place:
- Google promises to develop a voice interface through which household items (e.g., refrigerator) will learn to understand natural human speech
- Intel announced the Intel IoT Platform, designed, as the name implies, Internet of things
- Apple offers HomeKit platform, which is designed to control home electronics (appliances, lighting, alarms, garage doors etc.)
- Microsoft adapts its Azure cloud services for the Internet of things
As it usually happens in young promising markets, could begin a “war of standards”. In order to avoid it, it is already significant efforts.
In particular, two public high-tech group from the category of largest — AllSeen Alliance and Alljoyn from Qualcomm have joined forces with the Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC) within the framework of the new organization called Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF).
With task compatibility at the corporate level should handle the OneM2M standard, followed by 230 companies, including such well-known like Amazon, Cisco, Huawei, Intel, NEC, Qualcomm, Samsung and many others.4
Information security of the Internet of things
Experts believe that “at present, the safe ecosystem of the Internet of things does not exist.” Due to the fact that many devices connected to the Internet is not encrypted wireless traffic, is not provided passwords of sufficient complexity, and also due to many other factors, the hackers can, for example, to enable and disable the wrong dishwasher and washing machine, lock masters in their own house or even observe their home life through, for example, cameras mounted on the robot vacuum cleaner. For extra safety the introduction of mandatory certification of devices designed to connect to the Internet, installing special uniform chips, and other measures.5
In the long term “smart” will be not only houses, but cities, and even (some) States. But at this stage of technology development and society the Internet of things is being promoted not on the global scale, and within the companies involved in the production of goods, energy, transportation, etc. — where due to new technologies is expected to increase productivity and competitiveness. The difficulty scaling of this experience due to the fact that it is necessary to integrate many systems from different vendors, and to establish their coordinated work — task is more difficult than to achieve a harmonious sound with a full Symphony orchestra.
5. http://www.tadviser.ru/Статья:Информационная_безопасность_интернета_вещей_(Internet of Things)